Gate CSE 2021 exam is conducted by IIT Bombay. Gate 2021 is an examination for all computer science graduate who wants to pursue a degree in MTech, ME and PhD from IITs, NITs and IIITs or recruitment in PSUs.

**GATE CSE Syllabus**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics****Discrete Mathematics:** Propositional and first order logic. Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices. Monoids, Groups. Graphs: connectivity, matching, coloring. Combinatorics: counting, recurrence relations, generating functions.**Linear Algebra:** Matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, LU decomposition.**Calculus:** Limits, continuity and differentiability. Maxima and minima. Mean value theorem. Integration.**Probability and Statistics:** Random variables. Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial distributions. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation. Conditional probability and Bayes theorem.

**Section 2: Digital Logic**

Boolean algebra. Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization. Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).

**Section 3: Computer Organization and Architecture**

Machine instructions and addressing modes. ALU, data‐path and control unit. Instruction pipelining, pipeline hazards. Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage; I/O interface (interrupt and DMA mode).

**Section 4: Programming and Data Structures**

Programming in C. Recursion. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs.

**Section 5: Algorithms**

Searching, sorting, hashing. Asymptotic worst-case time and space complexity. Algorithm design techniques: greedy, dynamic programming and divide‐and‐conquer. Graph traversals, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths.

**Section 6: Theory of Computation**

Regular expressions and finite automata. Context-free grammars and push-down automata. Regular and contex-free languages, pumping lemma. Turing machines and undecidability.

**Section 7: Compiler Design**Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation. Runtime environments. Intermediate code generation. Local optimisation, Data flow analyses: constant propagation, liveness analysis, common subexpression elimination.

**Section 8: Operating System**

System calls, processes, threads, inter‐process communication, concurrency and synchronization. Deadlock. CPU and I/O scheduling. Memory management and virtual memory. File systems.

**Section 9: Databases**

ER‐model. Relational model: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints, normal forms. File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and concurrency control.

**Section 10: Computer Networks**

Concept of layering: OSI and TCP/IP Protocol Stacks; Basics of packet, circuit and virtual circuit switching; Data link layer: framing, error detection, Medium Access Control, Ethernet bridging; Routing protocols: shortest path, flooding, distance vector and link-state routing; Fragmentation and IP addressing, IPv4, CIDR notation, Basics of IP support protocols (ARP, DHCP, ICMP), Network Address Translation (NAT); Transport layer: flow control and congestion control, UDP,

TCP, sockets; Application layer protocols: DNS, SMTP, HTTP, FTP, Email.

**Best GATE CSE Books**

Topic | Book Name | Author |

Aptitude | A Modern Approach to Verbal & Non-Verbal Reasoning | R.S. Aggarwal |

Quantitative Aptitude For Competitive Examinations | R.S. Aggarwal | |

Programming & Data Structure | The C Programming language | Brian W. Kernighan, Dennis M. Ritchie |

Classic Data Structures | Debasis Samanta | |

Algorithms | Introduction to Algorithms | Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, Clifford Stein |

Computer Networks | Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach | James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross |

Operating Systems | Operating System Concepts | Silberschatz, Galvin, Gagne |

Databases | Database System Concepts | Silberschatz, Sudarshan, Korth |

Theory of Computation | An Introduction to Formal Languages and Automata | Peter Linz |

Computer Organization & Architecture | Computer Organization and Architecture | Hamacher, Vranesic, Zaky |

Engineering Mathematics | Higher Engineering Mathematics | B. S. Grewal, Edition |

Digital Logic | Digital Logic & Computer Design | M. Morris Mano |

Complier Logic | Compilers: Principles, Techniques and Tools | Alfred V. Aho, Ravi Sethi, D. Jeffrey Ulman |